by:     February 21, 2022

Globally, India ranks third in coconut and coconut oil production. Philippines and Indonesia take the first two positions. The previous part of copra or coconut oil global commercial aspects covered the global supply and trade of copra, coconut oil and their prices. This Part 2 presents export data of major coconut products from Philippines and Indonesia as well as ASEAN countries together. Also, the details about the international trade in coconut products for USA are also presented. Although somewhat older, i.e., for the year 2015, the data on area under coconut cultivation, coconuts production and productivity in major coconut producing countries, are presented, which may be useful for comparison.

The following table lists area, production and productivity coconut in major coconut growing countries of the world reported for the year 2015.

TABLE 1: COCONUT AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN MAJOR COCONUT PRODUCING COUNTRIES (2015)

COUNTRY AREA, ‘000 ha PRODUCTION,

million nuts

PRODUCTIVITY, nuts/ha
F. S. Micronesia 18 60 3333
Fiji 64 159 2484
India 2088 22167 10616
Indonesia 3441 13934 4049
Jamaica 16 100 6250
Kenya 77 254 3299
Kiribati 23 198 8609
Malaysia 85 505 5941
Marshall Islands 8 38 4750
Papua New Guinea 221 1483 6710
Philippines 3565 13825 3878
Samoa 99 267 2697
Solomon Islands 38 100 2632
Sri Lanka 440 3011 6843
Thailand 184 686 3728
Tonga 26 56 2154
Vanuatu 92 699 7598
Vietnam 165 1471 8915
Other Countries 1256 8115 6461
TOTAL 11906 67128 5638

[Source – Coconut Development Board / Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) Statistical Year Book 2015]

Exports of coconut products from Philippines during 2018, 2019 and 2020 (quantity and value) are presented in the following table, along with their HS codes.

TABLE 2: EXPORTS OF MAJOR COCONUT PRODUCTS FROM PHILIPPINES (2018-2020)

YEARS / PRODUCTS HS CODES 2018 2019 2020
QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $
Desiccated coconuts 080111 121547 282949825 155459 256752598 145211 255094051
Coconuts, other than desiccated 080119 1366 1810685 2521 2366576 1598 1839661
Crude coconut oil and its fractions 151311 625635 643944944 88012 582030074 99027 530319530
Coconut oil and its fractions, other than crude 151319 328472 410686084 244631 291440424 128879 243879212
Copra cake (meal) 230650 398467 71104567 305113 60800858 200846 42129940

[Source – UN Comtrade Database]

The following table presents exports of various coconut products from Indonesia (quantity and value) during the years 2018, 2019 and 2020.

TABLE 3: EXPORTS OF MAJOR COCONUT PRODUCTS FROM INDONESIA (2018-2020)

YEARS / PRODUCTS HS CODES 2018 2019 2020
QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $
Desiccated coconuts 080111 109179 170541648 98742 107252119 128086 178797485
Copra 080112 298520 56054588 242388 39344070 260089 58675194
Coconuts, other than desiccated 080119 290454 64817041 315881 75764233 630108 160342219
Crude coconut oil and its fractions 151311 344996 354757999 279379 188135258 266992 236329882
Coconut oil and its fractions, other than crude 151319 330274 368116563 331433 255130 311056 309408900
Copra cake (meal) 230650 332205 51234747 234642 39458335 182836 32404324
Woven carpets, whether or not made up of coconut fibers (coir) 570220 149 194094 146 247857 29 26356

[Source – UN Comtrade Database]

As can be seen from comparison of the above data in the two tables, copra (HS Code 080112) is being exported by Indonesia but not by Philippines in significant quantities. Similarly, Indonesia exports somewhat significant quantities of woven carpets (HS Code 570220) than those exported from Philippines.

In the year 2020, Philippines exported higher quantities of desiccated coconuts (HS Code 08011) than those exported by Indonesia. However, Indonesia exported significantly larger quantities of copra (HS Code 080112) and coconuts other than desiccated (HS Code 080119) as compared to Philippines.

In the case of crude coconut oil and its fractions (HS Code 151311), Indonesia exported 266992 MT (almost 270000 MT), much larger (almost three times!) quantities across the world than the quantities exported by Philippines, 99027 MT (slightly lower than 100000 MT). Also, Indonesia exported more quantities (311056 MT) of coconut oil and its fractions other than crude (HS Code 151319), while Philippines exported just 128879 MT of these products.

However, the exports of copra cake (meal) (HS Code 230650) from Philippines higher (200846 MT) are than those from Indonesia at 182836 MT.

Comparison of exports of same products from a country during consecutive years 2019 and 2020 may not be proper due to the global corona virus pandemic. There are significant variations in the export data of most of the coconut products from 2019 to 2020 due to several different factors.

As both these countries, Philippines and Indonesia, are the top producers of coconuts, their processing industry is well-developed and is still growing in these countries. Extraction of coconut or copra oil and its fractionation into value-added products are carried out on a very large scale in these countries.

Since coconut is more prevalent in the coastal regions of Asian countries, it would be interesting to analyze the historical coconut oil trade data from ASEAN countries, which include Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The following table presents exports and imports of coconut oil and cake of coconuts from and into ASEAN countries during the period 2009 to 2018, in value terms (US $).

TABLE 4: COCONUT OIL AND CAKE OF COCONUTS EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF ASEAN COUNTRIES (2009 TO 2018)

PRODUCTS / COCONUT OIL,

million US $

CAKE OF COCONUTS, million US $
YEARS EXPORTS IMPORTS EXPORTS IMPORTS
2009 1108.3 135.8 74.8 20.9
2010 1987.2 257.6 106.9 21.2
2011 2644.7 335.3 97.5 30.5
2012 2165.9 286.5 187.3 35.1
2013 1624.1 175.8 290.4 40.1
2014 2413.6 289.2 178.0 19.4
2015 2167.4 278.0 120.8 25.5
2016 2179.9 286.7 96.1 20.6
2017 2590.6 295.9 102.2 28.4
2018 1957.6 287.5 120.2 21.0
% Growth

(2009-2018)

5.9 7.8 4.9 0.0

[Source – ASEAN Statistical Yearbook 2019]

The following table presents ASEAN exports of coconut oil to the top three markets along with their market shares for the period 2015 to 2018.

TABLE 5: ASEAN EXPORTS OF COCONUT OIL TO TOP THREE COUNTRIES AND MARKET SHARES (2015 TO 2018)

2018

TOP THREE COUNTRIES

2015 2016 2017 2018
VALUE, million US $ SHARE, % VALUE, million US $ SHARE, % VALUE, million US $ SHARE, % VALUE, million US $ SHARE, %
EU 28 686.6 31.7 696.6 32.0 952.7 36.8 637.8 32.6
USA 727.2 33.6 695.5 31.9 776.5 30.0 586.5 30.0
ASEAN 202.2 9.3 209.7 9.6 210.0 8.1 221.2 11.3
Top 3 (Total) 1616.0 74.6 1601.8 73.5 1939.2 74.9 1445.5 73.8

[Source – ASEAN Statistical Yearbook 2019]

Since USA is one of the major markets for coconut oil and other coconut products, the imports of major coconut products into USA for the recent three years, 2018, 2019 and 2020 are presented in the following table.

TABLE 6: IMPORTS OF MAJOR COCONUT PRODUCTS IN USA (2018-2020)

YEARS / PRODUCTS HS CODES 2018 2019 2020
QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $ QTY, MT VAL, US $
Desiccated coconuts 080111 48067 112805965 45531 84801708 41056 82838960
Copra (Coconuts, in the inner shell (endocarp), fresh or dried) 080112 2651 1683454 3429 2404123 3377 2194341
Coconuts, other than desiccated 080119 52692 45955213 49384 43764488 40271 35902302
Crude coconut (copra) oil and its fractions 151311 210057 282476666 169873 174855519 185794 184625553
Coconut (copra)oil and its fractions, refined but not chemically modified 151319 271306 471151833 301252 378121898 259668 346301136
Coconut or copra oilcake (meal) 230650 7086 1183098 2401 1370411 2948 1621092
Floor coverings of coconut fibers (coir) – Woven carpets, whether or not made up of coconut fibers (coir) 570220 2093263 sq. m 18225378 2308456 sq. m 18903692 1700992 sq. m 14071653

[Source – USITC Dataweb]

A study of the import quantities in the year 2020 reveals that USA imports very large quantities of desiccated and non-desiccated coconuts, crude as well as refined coconut (copra) oil and their fractions, but relatively small quantities of copra and coconut oilcake (meal). These data clearly indicates that coconut processing industry is not very significant in the USA, but consumes large quantities of coconut oil and its fractions for various applications, including further processing to convert them into high-value products.

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